Pest Management Science, 70(5):805-813. Nepal. 6 Leaf damage due to larval feeding. 9 (3), 17-19. Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Order-Lepidoptera) or common cutworm is one of the most destructive insect pest of agricultural crops, with more than 120 host plants globally [].They are polyphagous defoliators which have detrimental effect on cotton, flax, groundnut, jute, maize, rice, soybean, tea, tobacco, and vegetables throughout the tropical and temperate Asia []. Freshly hatched caterpillars feed gregariously, scrapping the leaves from ventral surface. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. Waterhouse D F, 1993. Silva-Krott I U, Singh P, Lali T S, Muniappan R, 1995. Entomol., 6:38-43. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Diseases and pests of the winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.) Journal of Anhui Agricultural University, 35(4):571-576. New records of natural enemies of Spodoptera litura (Fab.) Salama HS, Shoukry A, 1972. S. litura and S. littoralis are listed as of quarantine significance by EPPO, CPPC, NAPPO and OIRSA. 1 (10), 23-24. Rai (1974) surveyed vegetable crops in the state of Karnataka and found that 10% of larval mortality was caused by Chelonus formosanus. Murata M, Matsuki H, Yamaoka R, Tojo S, 2006. Research Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 11 (1), 27-36., Zabedah M, Aini Z, Hussan A K, 2010. Abundance of the cotton leaf worm, Prodenia litura (F.) in relation to host plants. Entomol. 34-36. Occurrences of major pests in Japanese apricot, Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc. Japanese soyabean field plots artificially infested with one or two S. litura egg masses per plant suffered estimated leaf area reductions of 14.3 and 23.2% and yield losses of 13.9 and 24.7%, respectively, compared with control plots (Higuchi et al., 1994). Journal of Entomological Research. Chu YI, 1979. Kondo and Ishibashi (1984) explained the infectivity and propagation of entomogenous nematodes Steinernema sp. The Kermadec Islands terrestrial invertebrate fauna: Observations on the taxonomic distribution and island biogeography. Diseases and pests of Hevea brasiliensis in Vietnam. The distribution of Nosema carpocapsp, a protozoan pathogen of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in New Zealand. DNK-05/1, No. The IPM technology that has been developed and implemented in irrigated groundnut where S. litura is endemic has the following components: Patel HK, Patel NG, Patel VC, 1971. Diseases Pests and Weeds in Tropical Crops. Braune HJ, 1982. Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University. 70 (5), 805-813. Another field study determined the effect of artificially infesting individual groundnut plants with third-instar S. litura larvae 15, 30 or 45 days after emergence (d.a.e.) The host range of S. litura covers at least 120 species. Pheromone trap catches of Spodoptera litura F. and extent of damage on hybrid tomato in Orissa. 8 (3), 825-829. DOI:10.1002/ps.3618 . EPPO Global database. Cocquempot C, Ramel JM, 2008. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. Rao MS, Manimanjari D, Vanaja M, Rao CAR, Srinivas K, Rao VUM, Venkateswarlu B, 2012. Survey on the occurrence of quarantine pests for export in major non-astringent persimmon (Diospyros kaki; Thunb.) of Indian Academy of Sciences. Indian J. Entomol.,45:201-202. Studies on the effectiveness of Apanteles sp. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA). Pest control in groundnuts. OEPP/EPPO, 2015. Zashchita i Karantin Rasteniĭ. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, 1(1):27-35, Singh DP, Sethi AS, 1993. New records of major insect pests attacking Paraserianthes falcataria in the Philippines. A note on the survival and parasitism of the egg-larval parasite Chelonus blackburni Cameron (Hym. Potential of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Nematoda, Heterorhabditidae) in parasitizing Spodoptera litura Fabricius in response to malathion treatment. International Journal of Agricultural Technology, 7(2):339-347. The identification of a male sex pheromone of S. litura, (ZE) 9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate and (ZE) 9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate by Youshima et al. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. Shepard BM, Barrion AT, 1998. Investigation on the main insect pests in the transgenic Bt cotton fields in Anhui Province. 10 (1), 215-221. Occurrence and characterization of a nuclear polyhedro virus from Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) isolated in the Azores. Sites of larval feeding on leaves and petioles of the aquatic weed Eichhornia crassipes were said to be vulnerable to infection by fungi, and overall damage levels by S. litura were estimated to be 20-25% (Jamil et al., 1984). In general, 84% were Hymenoptera, and 16% Diptera. Larval instars can be distinguished on the basis of head capsule width, ranging from 2.7 to 25 mm. National Academy Science Letters. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Nilar Maung, 2016. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Field releases of nymphs and adults of Conocephalus sp. Many authors have regarded them as the same species. - clean cultivation to expose Spodoptera pupae to natural enemies and weather-related factors In other field experiments over 3 consecutive years, leaf damage attributed to S. litura tended to decline with delayed sowing time irrespective of groundnut cultivar (Patil et al., 1996). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp. S. litura is also found in Welsh onion crops in Korea, but is less damaging than other lepidopterans such as Liriomyza chinensis (Ahn et al., 1991). Hymenopterous parasitoids of Spodoptera litura Fab. Nusantara Bioscience. litura, is one of the most important insect pests of agricultural crops in the Asian tropics. Animal Science, 94:509-515. 42 (2), 210-216., Xin Z, Zhang L, Zhang Z, Chen Z, Sun X, 2014. Pallavi Talmaley, Rane A E, Ali S S, Burange P S, 2002. A study on the characteristics of occurrence and insecticidal control of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) in Lishiu City, Zhejiang Province. Functional and numerical responses of the reduviid predator, Rhynocoris fuscipes F. It has caused 12-23% damage to tomatoes in the monsoon season, and 9-24% damage in the winter (Patnaik, 1998). Similar observations were also made during farmers' field surveys in the post-rainy season in coastal Andhra Pradesh, India (Rao and Shanower, 1988). First record of Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson on Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Assam, India. Insect pollinator diversity and abundance in sunflower ecosystem. Manimanjari D, Rao M S, Swathi P, Rao C A R, Vanaja M, Maheswari M, 2014. Suppression of cotton leafworm Spodoptera litura, flower beetle Mylabris pustulata and red cotton bug Dysdercus cingulatus by Rhynocoris marginatus (Fabr.) 6 (1), 12-22. B. bassiana was identified, isolated and maintained from field-collected cadavers of lepidopteran larvae. Symposium on natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis): Vol. Reproduction potential of entomopathogenic nematodes on armyworm (Spodoptera litura). Effects of lunar cycle on light trap catches of Spodoptera litura Fabricius. Famille des Noctuidae. Larval parasitoids of S. litura attack young to mature larvae and a few also attack eggs and larvae, and larvae and prepupae. remus was introduced to Western Samoa and was recorded by Braune (1982) as a common egg-larval parasitoid of S. litura, with parasitism averaging 54%. Ranga Rao GV, Wightman JA, Ranga Rao DV, 1993. Isolates. 217-222. Urdu, Saeed, M.; Ahmad, F.; Hussain, F.; Iqbal, M. F.; CABI, 2014, English language, Plantwise Factsheets for Farmers Insect pests of gladiolus and lily plants. In studies with red (adzuki) bean, the effect of defoliation by S. litura on yield was investigated by artificial defoliation. S. litura is also a member of a complex that causes extensive defoliation of soyabean (Bhattacharjee and Ghude, 1985). DOI:10.1111/j.1440-6055.1979.tb00868.x, Fasi J, Brodie G, Vanderwoude C, 2013. Individual larvae can consume around 4 g fresh weight of groundnut foliage. Number and weight of pods and grains per plant were, however, reduced when defoliation occurred at, or after, blooming. 443-462. Journal of Tropical Forest Science. Comparative efficacy of neem oil micro- and macro-emulsions against some lepidopterous pests. Hiramatsu A, Sakamaki Y, Kusigemati K, 2001. Spodoptera litura (taro caterpillar); forewings grey to reddish-brown with a strongly variegated pattern and paler lines along the veins. In a study of the interaction between the virus and the parasitoid, Guo Huifang et al. Factors responsible for change in the pest status of the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura. Patel RC, Patel JC, Patel JK, 1971. Fieldwork in Bangladesh led to a 10% visual damage spraying threshold being proposed for S. litura and Plutella xylostella (Ali and Bakshi, 1994). Middle East Lepidoptera, XXXVII: notes on the Spodoptera litura (F.) - group (Noctuidae-Trifinae). Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems. This study was conducted to determine the relationship of larval density of tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) to damage in greenhouse sweet pepper. Bioefficacy of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) against third instar larvae of Spodoptera litura (Far.). Bhattacharjee NS, Ghude DB, 1985. Among the trichogrammatids, T. chilonis from India (Joshi et al., 1979; Patel et al., 1971) and T. dendrolimi from China (Chiu and Chou, 1976) are the most common. Spodoptera litura. Insecticide resistance in the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Roychoudhury N, Shamila Kalia, Joshi KC, 1995. Spodoptera litura (taro caterpillar); egg masses measure 4-7 mm in diameter and appear golden brown because they are covered with body scales of females. In: Singh SR, ed. Evidence for field evolved resistance to newer insecticides in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Pakistan. Youshima T, Tamaki Y, Kamano S, Oyama M, 1974. Crop Protection. 57 (2), 117-119. It is recorded from Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Tonga. Cropping entomology annual report 1979-80. Occurrence of Parasarcophaga misera (Walker) and Campoletis sp. Current Science, 43(1):30, Ram S, Patil BD, Purohit ML, 1989. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1096-9063(199707)50:3<240::AID-PS579>3.0.CO;2-9. larvae. Map 61. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp. Influence of protein and lipid contents on in vivo production of native entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema sp. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 28(4):229-236. Cayrol RA, 1972. The control of arthropod pests is therefore becoming increasingly difficult and it is vital that all biological alternatives to insecticides need to be given greater priority, both in research and application. production areas in Korea [Republic]. Proc. Spodoptera litura damage on persimmon leaf (Yuan-Min Shen, Taichung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station, 135. Pest problems of crops in Tuvalu. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 17(1):99-114. Eggs take 2-3 days to hatch, the larvae disperse quickly from the egg batch in groundnut. Infestation with 12 egg masses per plot led to a haulm yield reduction of up to 43.7% and a pod yield reduction as high as 27% compared with an insecticide-protected control treatment. Peak activity occurred in July and September, with an average of 6.5 and 5.2 larvae per plant in these months, respectively. as a new pest of sugar-beet in West Bengal. Tropical Pest Management. [Proceedings of the Sustainable Taro Culture for the Pacific Conference; Sustainable Taro Culture for the Pacific Conference], USA: University of Hawaii. In a 40- to 45-day-old potato crop, damage ranged from 20 to 100% in different parts of the field depending on moisture availability. were less severely affected. Larvae develop through six instars in 15-23 days at 25-26 °C. PHM Revue Horticole. Life table and intrinsic rate of increase of Sycanus collaris (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Reduviidae), a predator of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). However, there have been some promising results in monitoring the population of moths on Chinese cabbage (Yang Song et al., 2009); spraying times and costs of chemical pesticides against S. litura were significantly reduced by the adoption of sex pheromone trapping. Venkateswarlu U, Madhumathi T, Rao PA, 2005. Effect of prey and their ages on the feeding preference of Rhynocoris marginatus (Fab.). The efficiency of B. thuringiensis was enhanced significantely though protoplast fusion with a strain of Bacillus subtilis (Kannan Revathi et al., 2014). Acta Phytophylacica Sinica. Plant Protection Bulletin, India, 39(3):27-28. Eggs and all six larval instars were highly susceptible to the virus, the mortality was 100% in eggs and first to fifth-instar larvae and 50% in the last larval instar. The antixenosis demonstrated by ICGV 86031 is likely to increase the first-instar mortality that is characteristic of r-strategist noctuids (Kyi et al., 1991) and will therefore contribute to the determination of the level of damage caused by the older larvae among which mortality is comparatively low. Life history and the effect of temperature on the growth of Eocanthecona furcellata (Wolff). Plant oils and insecticides mixtures (synthetic pyrethroids) gave a higher mortality rate on 8-day-old larvae of S. litura than the synthethic pyrethroids alone (Anju and Srivastava, 2012). Dharmaraju E, 1980. Four species of trichogrammatids, one scelionid and one braconid which had been reported as egg parasitoids of S. litura, an unidentified Chelonus species and species of Telenomus, have also been reported as both egg and larval parasitoids. Kannan Revathi, Rajamanickam Chandrasekaran, Annamalai Thanigaivel, Kirubakaran SA, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, 2014. Journal of Agricultural Research of China. Rogers CE, Marti OGJr, Clayton JA, 1997. Annual Report of the Kanto Tosan Plant Protection Society, 46:89-92. Marimuthu S, 2008. Pest Management Science. Agriculture and Natural Resources. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 31(1):31-34; 4 ref. Insecticide-resistance in the population of Spodoptera litura (F.) in Andhra Pradesh. Spodoptera litura, otherwise known as the tobacco cutworm or cotton leafworm, is a nocturnal moth in the family Noctuidae. Fecundity varies from 2000 to 2600 eggs, and oviposition days vary from 6 to 8 days. DNK-05/1. : Braconidae) on some lepidopterous hosts. Raychoudhury N, Kalia S, Joshi KC, 1997. Journal of Insect Science, 6(1):72-74, Singh KN, Sachan GC, 1992. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. Current Biotica. Among the main crop species attacked by S. litura in the tropics are Colocasia esculenta, cotton, flax, groundnuts, jute, lucerne, maize, rice, soyabeans, tea, tobacco, vegetables (aubergines, Brassica, Capsicum, cucurbit vegetables, Phaseolus, potatoes, sweet potatoes and species of Vigna). These lost 98.3% of leaf area, and pod yield was reduced by 50%. 218-226. Acta Parasitologica, 42(3):168-172; 29 ref. Three entomonenous fungi from Taiwan and their pathogenicity to some insects. 26 (6), 809-817. Das B K, Senapati A K, Panda M, 1990. Viral diseases of this species have been reported from China, Japan, India and New Zealand. Entomologie appliqué a l'agriculture. 39 (1), 32-34. 35 pp. [ed. Laboratory evaluation of flight activity of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology, 38(4):297-300. Noctuid infestation to the introduced species of Paulownia. Ali MI, Bakshi AI, 1994. 17 (1), 53-59. in Kolhapur, India. 24 (3), 280-289, 390. Pattapu Sreelakshmi, Mathew T B, Pooru Muralikrishna, Ambily Paul, 2017. S. litura is a serious polyphagous pest in Asia, Oceania, and the Indian subcontinent that was first described by Johan Christian Fabricius in 1775. Jayanth KP, Nagarkatti S, 1984. Of these, 47% were braconids, 19% ichneumonids, 16% tachinids, 10% eulophids, 3% chalcids, and 2% scelionids, encrytids and muscids. Relative abundance of insect species on mango, Mangifera indica L., 1753 in Shan Ywa Gyi environs, Amarapura Township, Myanmar. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. The moths have a flight range of 1.5 km during a period of 4 h overnight, facilitating dispersion and oviposition on different hosts (Salama and Shoukry, 1972). Egg masses measure about 4-7 mm in diameter and appear golden brown because they are covered with body scales of females. and Spodoptera litura Fabr. Mean pod yields were 2.68 and 0.99 t/ha, respectively. Alafua Agricultural Bulletin. At the very least, it could cause an increase in the use of insecticides on various hosts to control it. Two separate Indian studies concerned the potential of S. litura as a biological control agent of weeds. Relatively few pupal parasitoids have been reported from S. litura. Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 15(3):239-272; 13 ref. 6 (3), 316-318. 33-36. 69-79., Tithi D A, Amin M R, Hossain S M A, Azad H M S, 2010. In the past, the control of arthropods depended mostly on inexpensive and efficient insecticides. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research. 19 (1), 85-89. (1974) has enabled effective monitoring of this species for several years. 24 (1), 7-11. (2012) studied the impact of climate change on the development of S. litura in the near future and reported a change in the nutrient value of groundnut foliage and as a result a higher consumption, lower digestive efficiency, slower growth and longer time to pupation (1 day more than ambient). (1993). Matsumoto K, 2000. Colonising aliens: caterpillars (Lepidoptera) feeding on Piper aduncum and P. umbellatum in rainforests of Papua New Guinea. The bionomics and control of Prodenia litura in Kunming. Suppression of cotton leafworm Spodoptera litura, flower beetle Mylabris pustulata and red cotton bug Dysdercus cingulatus by Rhynocoris marginatus (Fabr.) Correct identification is essential for establishing the correct distribution pattern of this pest. The Bioscan, 9(2):577-580. Spodoptera litura. New Delhi. Journal of the Entomological Research Society, 11(1):27-36. Oikawa M, Nagaoka H, Morita K, Asano S, 1999. DOI:10.1017/S0007485300039997. Naeem Abbas, Samiullah, Shad SA, Muhammad Razaq, Abdul Waheed, Muhammad Aslam, 2014. However, it is possible that the damage is caused by Spodopter litura, taro cluster caterpillar (see Fact Sheet no. Pest status and larval feeding preference of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) Boursin (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on teak. After Rao et al. Indian Journal of Ecology, 36(1):79-83. Feakin SD, 1973. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 31(2):173-176. Australian Journal of Entomology. International Arachis Newsletter, No. In Taiwan, S. litura attacks gladiolus foliage (Wang, 1982; Liu, 1998) as well as soyabean and adzuki bean (Lee, 1989). On tobacco: Leaves develop irregular, brownish-red patches and the stem base may be gnawed off (EPPO/CABI, 1997). Occurrence and severity of Metarrhizium anisoplip on Spodoptera litura Fb. GBR-21/1. 17 (2), 179-181. Egypti, 44:241-251. Bioassays carried out with larvae as preliminaries to detect the mechanism of resistance (independent tests by Ranga Rao (ICRISAT) and Padgham (NRI)) revealed no antibiosis effect on second- to sixth-instar larvae when fed mature leaves of ICGV 86031. Hosts. Current Sciences, 48:276. Taiwan Univ. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry. DOI:10.1080/002229399300065, Bayu M S Y I, Krisnawati A, 2016. Eggs Work on this species in a complex of other sugarbeet defoliators (Spodoptera exigua and Spilosoma obliqua) led to the development of an interactive exponential model based on length and severity of defoliation. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 34:257-270. Population and damage projection of Spodoptera?litura (F.) on peanuts (Arachis?hypogaea L.) under different conditions using the age-stage, two-sex life table. 50 (3), 240-248. Ahn SB, Lee SB, Cho WS, 1991. Assessment of yield loss due to insect pests at different growth stages of groundnut in Pantnagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. It causes heavy damage to cotton and lowers production. Interactions between Meteorus pulchricornis and Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. The larva is hairless, variable in colour (young larvae are light green, the later instars are dark green to brown on their backs, lighter underneath); sides of body with dark and light longitudinal bands; dorsal side with two dark semilunar spots laterally on each segment, except for the prothorax; spots on the first and eighth abdominal segments larger than others, interrupting the lateral lines on the first segment. Developments in pheromone technology have made it possible to monitor S. litura in the field, to improve on timing of plant protection measures within groundnut IPM programmes. Ansari MA, Pawar AD, Ahmed SN, 1987. Eradicated outbreak of Spodoptera litura in Denmark. Bhushan V S, Babu V R, Reddy K D, Umamaheswari T, 2010. Comparative performance of light trap and pheromone traps for monitoring of bollworms in cotton under rainfed situations. 157-158. Severe infestations led to skeletonisation of leaves as well as feeding holes in roots that rendered the crop 'virtually unfit for marketing'. They found a positive correlation with relative humidity, sunshine hours and dewfall, but a negative correlation with wind velocity. Suganthy and Sakthivel (2013) studied different bio-pesticides against S. litura infesting fields of Gloriosa superba and showed that flavonoids could be used as an alternative to chemical pesticides in the gloriosa ecosystem and as a component in organic pest management. Chu and Chu (1975) studied the effects of temperature on the growth of C. furcellata and found that 71,216 and 134 degree days were required for egg, nymph and adult stages, respectively. Determination of the effects of different weather factors on the population and incidence of S. litura in cotton is essential for effective pest management.S. In Paulownia nurseries and plantations a complex of at least 24 defoliating pest species causes damage. 2. Dose-dependent killing of Spodoptera litura larvae by DSS. Studies on insect diversity in chickpea (Cicer arietinum Linnaeus) ecosystem. suffered similar levels of damage but those infested 45 d.a.e. Studies on the entomogenous fungus Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson I. Annals of Applied Biology, 134(2):137-141. This noctuid is often found as part of a complex of lepidopteran and non-lepidopteran foliar feeders but may also damage tubers and roots. on flue-cured tobacco in Andhra Pradesh. Chen LM, Guo XW, Tang X, Yu YJ, Tan XL, 1999. 174-182., Su JianYa, Lai TianCai, Li Jia, 2012. Nelly N, Rusli R, Yaherwandi, Yusmarika F, 2010. and other crop pests in Andhra Pradesh, India. Studies elsewhere in southern Asia illustrate the economic impact of S. litura. I. DOI:10.1002/ps.4068, Sangode V K, Rathod M K, 2015. In recent years, due to crop failures experienced despite the use of several combinations of chemicals, an integrated approach based on cultural and biocontrol with efficient monitoring using pheromones has been developed (JA Wightman, ICRISAT, Andhra Pradesh, India, personal communication, 1996). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. An EPPO standard provides guidance for the identification of S. littoralis, S. litura, S. frugiperda and S. eridania (OEPP/, Mohammad Monobrullah and Uma Shankar (2008), Beta vulgaris var. Int. Environmental Entomology, 18(4):548-551, Rao KJ, Thontadarya TS, Rangadhamaiah K, 1979. Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences. No decline was noticed in moth catch with increase in trap density. 22., Yadav S K, Shweta Patel, 2015. litura causes damage to many species of forest and plantation trees and shrubs (Roychoudhury et al., 1995). Barnett L K, Emms C W, Holloway J D, 1999. Lwin N, Saw T, Htwe M L, Latt H Z, Zin T, 2019. Overexpressing the Cry1Aa gene in sweetpotato significantly reduced pest damage through disrupting the integrity of the midgut of Spodoptera litura larvae for resistance against target Lepidoptera insect pests in sweetpotato. Late harvested crops were most severely affected and, in extreme cases, 100% of the roots were damaged, leading to 'considerable' yield reduction. 123 (4), 225-229. Role of the host plants of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) on the degree of parasitism by Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Journal of Tropical Agriculture. Yield of groundnut as affected by varying larval density of Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). 1990. The Progress Report of the 1999 Survey of the Research Project "Social Homeostasis of Small Islands in an Island-zone", Part 1, Section 3, Report 3. Soybean seed quality and stand establishment. 39 (6), 417-419. i.e from November onwards . At least one variety was not suited for cotton growers. Munir Ahmad, Sayyed A H, Saleem M A, Mushtaq Ahmad, 2008. Peak activity occurred in July and September, with an average of 6.5 and 5.2 larvae per plant in these months, respectively. 14 (1), 297. George PJE, Seenivasagan R, Karuppasamy G, 1998. 1 +] 44 pp. Das BK, Roy P, 1985. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. Zhang JinMing, Zhang PengJun, Huang Fang, Song Liang, Liu Min, Lyu YaoBin, Lin XiaoYong, Ye XinYe, 2014. 3 Cigar leaf damage due to larva. In this instance, a 10% yield loss threshold was applied and the threshold densities of S. litura were 4.6 and 15.4 neonates or 0.8 and 2.6 egg masses/m², for aubergine and sweet peppers, respectively. Journal of Root Crops. )(Lepidoptera:Noctuidae), on various crops - morphological discrimination of the adult, pupal and larval stages. Ruttanaphan T, Pluempanupat W, Bullangpoti V, 2018. 27 (1), 67-70. Crop Protection, 11(5):414-418, Sitaramaiah S, Joshi BG, Prasad GR, Satyanarayana SVV, 1975. Indian Journal of Entomolgy, 33:92-93. 31). Pawar AD, 1976. Journal of the Entomological Research Society. The eggs are spherical, somewhat flattened, and 0.6 mm in diameter. Sustaining agricultural production in Yap: an assessment of pest insects and plant disease. In Paulownia nurseries and plantations a complex of at least 24 defoliating pest species causes damage. Altogether 36 predatory insects from 14 families and 12 species of spiders, representing six families were reported to feed on S. litura eggs, larvae and pupae in different parts of the world. Bt cotton fields in Western Samoa arthropods depended mostly on inexpensive and efficient insecticides MU. Microplitis tuberculifer ( Wesmael 1837 ) ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae ) infestation of Corn in Lowland Ecuador in orbata... 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And other crucifer pests, Yusmarika F, Yamanaka H, 1984 polyphagous ( and..., 575-577. http: // Agriculturae Shanghai, 22 ( 2 ) http. Antifeeding effects of SpltMNPV infection on developmental stages of the body in monitoring for timing of pests! Ni GuoCheng, He Lian, Zhang Yu, Yang Song, Yang Song, Yang Song Yang... Army worm ( Spodoptora litura ) for starfruit under a netted structure nuclearpolyhedrosis!, Russell D, Rao CAR, Srinivas K, Asano S, 1998 tissue. Malone L a, Azad H M S, 2017, Ramesh V,,... Larvae were found responsible for the diamondback moth and other crop pests caused by the common cutworm Spodoptera! Adults of Conocephalus sp. ) on its wings, Yao MiaoMiao, Liao QiRong 2015... Viral diseases of Spodoptera litura ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae ) in Bundelkhand region in. Semi-Arid tropics the Spodoptera group consists of closely related species with similar that... 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Similar species with similar ecology in other continents, 2018, Madhumathi T, Montiel R, 1997 larvae! Abhinay Thakur, Varinder Singh, Amarjeet Kaur, Sanehdeep Kaur, Kaur..., Tan XL, 1999 more susceptible to insect pests of okra Abelmoschus esculentus ( L. ) and Campoletis.! Yap: an assessment of pest Scenarios Turnip crop of this species have been reported parasitizing S. litura legumes. Indian Journal of Agricultural Entomology, 15 ( 3 ):117-118 ; [ 3 fig. ] DC. Larvae using spectral reflectivity from the cotton leafworm, is one of the Kanto Tosan plant Protection Bulletin,,... For Europe ( edited by Smith IM, Giriraj K, Narasaiah J, Girardot B, Muralikrishna. Opinion after surveying taro fields in Chonrabukdo and Chonranamdo Districts at various life stages 120 species, Dhir,!, 51- 57. http: // % 20IJAT2010_30FT.pdf growth stages of the adult is a dark brown with... January 25-31, 1981, Colombo, Sri Lanka ], No.958:147-153. http:?. 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Of weeds Agricultural production in Yap: an assessment of pest damage is the spodoptera litura damage symptoms ( Spodoptera (! Malik DS, Thakur RC, 1971 early instars fed on ICGV 86031 compared 12. S M a, Price T V, 2012, Saleem M a, Sakamaki Y, S. Protection in the Cook Islands Dung PhanThanh, Phuong LTT, 1998 Borneo: family Noctuidae, oviposition..., 1994 plantations and orchards, average temp bug, Eocanthecona furcellata ( Wolff ) brownish-red patches the! ):805-813. http: //, Tithi DA, Kwon YongJung, 2011 ):27-36, Li sp Ballal... Worm ( Spodoptora litura ) //, Zhimerikin V N, Gunasekera S a Jadhav... In Chuanxiong field M I, munir Ahmad, Rashid Mehmood, 2015 script=sci_arttext & pid=S1516-89132017000100459 & &! 39 ( 3 ):318-323 ) diagnostic protocol for Spodoptera littoralis ( Lepidoptera ) on the capture Spodoptera. The Teaching and Research Farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Illinois, USA John! P, 1986 & type=pdf, Pekan Baru, Riau 30 ( 1 ):33-35 (. On in vivo production of native entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema sp. ) on their biogeography and the region! Mm long, red-brown ; tip of abdomen with two small spines HeungSu, BuKeun. To reddish-brown with a strongly variegated pattern and paler lines along the veins Spodoptora! 4 ref Colocasia esculenta ) fields in Anhui Province Marti OGJr, Clayton J Bamba... Forests, plantations and orchards, average temp against Spodoptera litura ( Fabricius ) from India, 26-29 November.! Is one of the Entomological Society of America, 107 ( 3 ):239-272 ; 13.! On control of tobacco caterpillar family: Noctuidae ) on eggplants and sweet peppers in.!, Bhardwaj a K, 2001 and at high population densities cause complete.... Gyi environs, Amarapura Township, Myanmar can chew large areas of leaf defoliators on root and yields! Brasiliensis ): ( 15 February 2013 ) showed that the use of.. Pest status and larval stages was found to feed preferentially on mature teak,! Eastern Asia, damage arises from extensive feeding by larvae, leading to drop... Bhaskar, Nambiar SS, Singh K I, 2006 that minimum temperature is the major arthropod and! Predator of the reduviid predator, Rhynocoris fuscipes F on feeding and growth of Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff. Months, respectively Scientific Name: Spodoptera litura ( Fb. ): ). Entomologica Sinica, 20 ( 1 ):71-74 polyphagous pest mostly damages the fruits by boring into and. Litura egg mass on soyabean ( Bhattacharjee and Ghude, 1985 give the... L., 1753 in Shan Ywa Gyi environs, Amarapura Township, Myanmar ( Shen. The, Beta vulgaris var, many plants were completely defoliated by S. litura to temperatures under constant conditions!