If one begins in 1948, the long-term tendency was for the G-NM share to gain at the expense of both the private share and the military share, with the military share absorbing almost two-thirds of the shift. 53. Describe the economic impact of Cold War defense spending on American industries. While this procedure does not permit one to claim that the resulting real spending series accurately portrays the growth of real defense “quantity”—whatever that might mean—it does permit one to approximate the opportunity cost of military spending in terms of real nonmilitary output forgone.18 Second, the military spending being analyzed here is for purchasing newly produced goods and services, including foreign military assistance. (Deletion of the years 1948-1950 from the data set has no effect on this conclusion.) Meanwhile the American people received an almost wholly fictitious account of an incident in the Gulf of Tonkin in 1964, which stampeded Congress into giving its blessing to what soon became a major war.41 Subsequent gaps were alleged with regard to bombers (again), thermonuclear megatonnage, antisubmarine capabilities, and missile throw weights. These operations caused a variety of radioactive and other toxic contaminations of the surrounding air, water, and soil, yet the managers of the facilities repeatedly misrepresented and lied about the hazards to citizens living nearby. But, in fact, it was the cold war, more than any other event, that determined Britain's approach to the post-war world. These measures to isolate the enemy and set up economic barriers helped to provoke the Cold War. Entering the world economy will be the 400 million people of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe--historically shut off by an economic wall nearly as formidable as … Since its end in 1991, hundreds of historians have written about the origins and impacts of the Cold War. See also Huntington, The Soldier and the State, pp. 286-290. The national highway system started by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1956 led to increased suburbanization and auto use, lower prices across the country, and the expansion of the Midwest. It is concealed, revealed, leaked, released, classified, declassified, jargonized, simplified, and packaged symbolically according to the political interests of those ubiquitous ‘informed sources’ who have a stake in the outcome of the issue in question.”49 Manipulation of information is central to what modern governing elites do. It was a war of tensions and hostilities where the belligerents engaged each other around the world but avoided direct conflict because of the dire consequences of such actions. “Leaders in a real sense interact with public opinion, both responding to it and manipulating it.” See also Russett, Controlling the Sword, pp. Sapolsky, “Equipping the Armed Forces,“ Armed Forces & Society, 14 (1987), pp. Also, some defense purchases originate in other federal departments, for example, the Energy Department (previously the Atomic Energy Commission), which purchases goods and services to produce nuclear reactors and warheads for the armed forces.19. Among the institutions and infrastructure that form its legacy are NASA, expanded trade with China, omnipresent nuclear threats, multilateral aid organizations like the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the extensive U.S. interstate highway system. The Cold War was an ideological and political standoff between the United States of America and the Soviet Union that engulfed the globe and lasted for decades. Despite this resumption of the decline that first began after 1968, it would be unwarranted to describe the decline between 1972 and 1976 as part of the Vietnam War demobilization as such.15 Although this latter phase of decline certainly reflected, in part, disillusionments and convictions engendered by the Vietnam experience, it applied more to the military establishment in general, especially the procurement accounts, than to forces in or supporting military action in Southeast Asia.16 In January 1973, with only 30,000 U.S. military personnel remaining in Vietnam, the Nixon administration terminated the draft, and the Paris Peace Agreement provided for the withdrawal of all remaining U.S. forces from Vietnam.17 The bulk of the military retrenchment during 1972-1976 reflected public and congressional revulsion against militarism and the Cold War, as evidenced by such events as the passage of the War Powers Resolution in 1973 and the National Emergencies Act in 1976, rather than savings associated with the reduction and eventual cessation of U.S. engagement in the Vietnam War. 616-35. 95-96; Stubbing, The Defense Game, pp. The trend tilted slightly upward for absolute real spending, slightly downward for spending as a share of GNP. Ostrom, “A Reactive Linkage Model,” p. 954; Ostrom and Marra, “U.S. 199-203. 122, 130, 168, 172. Gansler, The Defense Industry, p. 22. Huntington, The Soldier and the State, p. 384; Huntington, The Common Defense, pp. It used them as a buffer against the U.S. allies of France, West Germany, Italy, and Greece, who became their non-combatant enemies. During the period 1955-1965 U.S. military policy underwent substantial recasting. Friendly critics have pointed out to me that defense policy is not especially outstanding in these regards: any kind of political interest group, whether inside or outside the government, tries to control or slant information in the service of its policy ends. Not Really. Are Temperatures and Ocean Levels Rising Dangerously? Not being associated with a major shooting war, this vast military spending surge had no precedent in American history. Isaacson and Thomas, The Wise Men, pp. Mikhail Gorbachev’s reforms, which liberalized the economy and granted greater political freedoms, eventually led to a deadly crisis in the Soviet Union. Its dissolution in 1991 had as its main consequence the predominance of the United States as the only world power. 19-28. Wartime and peacetime were distinct, and during peacetime—that is, nearly all the time—the societal opportunity cost of “guns” was nearly nil. Perestroika and the Soviet Union’s economic failure led to its disappearance. Economic effect. Great … That is why during the late 1980s, notwithstanding the preceding buildup, the defense share of GNP never exceeded 7 percent (Figure 2 above). The Space Race started in 1957, when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik I, the world's first space satellite, which then fueled competition with the U.S. NASA was created in 1958 to advance U.S. leadership in rocketry, satellites, and space exploration. 124-125; Weida and Gertcher, Political Economy of National Defense, pp. Figure 6 is based on opinion survey data underlying Higgs and Kilduff, “Public Opinion.” While the figure indicates that public opinion tended to turn against support for further military buildup as each buildup proceeded, it also shows that the three highest peaks of pro-military opinion all occurred in conjunction with a crisis: the North Korean and Chinese invasions in Korea in 1950, the Berlin crisis of 1961, and the aftermath of the Iranian hostage-taking and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in November and December 1979. To some extent, the diminution reflected the diminishing share of military spending in GNP (Figure 2 above). "Projected Costs of U.S. Nuclear Forces, 2019 to 2028." 4-10. 43-44; Cypher, “Ideological Hegemony and Modern Militarism,” pp. Edelstein, Michael, “What Price Cold War? The international decisions made by both the United States and the Soviet Union in terms of their benefits had a serious impact on the internal political and economic systems of smaller nations, both in Latin America and in Western European regions. The United States then began building the atomic weapons. Prominent examples include Mills, The Power Elite; Fitzgerald, The High Priests of Waste; Adams, The Politics of Defense Contracting; and Lens, Permanent War. The rest of the momentum derived from the Reagan team and its political supporters, before as well as after Reagan took office. Cold War Influences on American Culture, Politics, and Economics. The U.S. would no longer send its troops to Asia, except for nuclear threats. I put its completion at 1971, when the military share of GNP had fallen below the premobilization share of 1965 (Figure 2). The Doctrine allowed President Richard Nixon to decrease defense spending and open up relations with China. 350-351. Mueller, War, Presidents and Public Opinion, pp. A regression of the annual changes of the G-NM share on the annual changes of the G-M share has a slope coefficient that does not differ significantly from zero (t = 0.355) and an R2 of just 0.003, which shows that the annual changes of the two variables bore no contemporaneous linear relationship to one another. Page and Shapiro (p. 209) conclude that “during the early Cold War [in the late 1940s], U.S. public opinion can be said, to a significant extent, to have been manipulated”—that is, deliberately misled by the authorities. Despite the public’s waning enthusiasm for foreign military adventures after the near-hysteria of 1980, events such as the U.S. invasion of Grenada and the Soviet downing of Korean Airlines flight 007 in 1983 were “carefully managed and interpreted by the [Reagan] administration” and “proved crucial, at least long enough to save the weapons buildup.”33, The ideological milieu was important, indeed essential, in maintaining high levels of resource allocation to defense, but it was not sufficient. 12. Culminating the demobilization, real military spending hit its postwar low in calendar year 1947 at $10 billion in current dollars, equivalent to about $45 billion in 1982 dollars, or 4.3 percent of GNP. Huntington, The Common Defense, p. 183. See also Matusow, The Unraveling of America, pp. In analyzing those processes I focus on information and ideology. 819-842; Kaufmann, A Reasonable Defense; Luttwak, The Pentagon and the Art of War; and Page and Shapiro, The Rational Public, pp. Lens, Sidney, Permanent War: The Militarization of America (New York, 1987). Kaufmann, William W., A Reasonable Defense (Washington, 1986). Notice that here and hereafter in this paper national defense spending is defined rather narrowly, as in the national income and product accounts. World War II cast an enormous shadow over the years that followed in the United States. Causes And Effects Of The Cold War 1181 Words | 5 Pages. 369, 725, and passim; Ambrose, Rise to Globalism, pp. Huntington, Samuel P., The Soldier and the State: The Theory and Politics of Civil-Military Relations (Cambridge, MA, 1957). 264-271, 335, 368. 200-201, 206-209. At the beginning of the Cold War, there were two superpowers, the U.S. and Russia. Cotton, “War and American Democracy,” pp. 7-12; Ambrose, Rise to Globalism, pp. Economic Aspects of the Cold War, 1962-1975 Richard N. Cooper Harvard University US objectives during the Cold War were to prevent Soviet attacks on the United States and its allies and to prevent the spread of communism as a political and economic system to other countries, whether by force or by threat, subversion, persuasion, or bribery. The Republicans had gained control of Congress in November [1946] by promising a return to normalcy, not an assumption of Britain’s empire.”8 To convince the public, and thereby Congress, of the need for additional defense spending to implement the proclaimed Truman Doctrine of containing communist expansion around the world, the administration needed a more visible crisis. It lost some political battles, too. As the opinion balance became strongly negative, it worked its way through political processes, reaching both Congress and the administration, to affect the allocation of resources to the military.64, Figure 6, which is based on 193 comparable nationally representative surveys in which people were asked whether they would prefer that defense spending be increased, decreased, or kept the same, shows a summary variable, opinion balance, defined as the percentage of respondents wanting an increase minus the percentage wanting a decrease. Students examine ways in which defense spending affected the Cold War economy. See also Mosley, The Arms Race, pp. Stubbing, Richard A., The Defense Game (New York, 1986). Changes in the G-M and P shares were almost exactly offsetting. 299, 327-330. Stanley Lebergott and Hugh Rockoff reminded me that many privately purchased goods also ought to be viewed as intermediate. Rees, David, Korea: The Limited War (Baltimore, 1970). 21-27, 32, 36-37. Military expenditures - Draining resources Centralized economy could provide the organization for an effective military establishment, but it was The main factor that led to the Cold War was the difference in ideologies between the two nations. Page and Shapiro (The Rational Public, p. 269) observe that the Reagan administration “misrepresented the arms balance long enough to take credit for ‘restoring’ U.S. strength.”. Ostrom, Charles W., “A Reactive Linkage Model of the U.S. Defense Expenditure Policymaking Process,” American Political Science Review, 72 (1978), pp. 79-111. Within the federal government the president gained power and discretion, especially in foreign affairs—people would later speak of an “imperial presidency.” In these respects important groundwork was laid for a greatly expanded American role in world affairs. The deterioration of the economic system that would lead to the end of the Soviet Union also affected all the countries that had officially adopted its guidelines, and which were now orphaned, without a proper apparatus on which to sustain themselves, such as Cuba. Zone in Germany, helped to create a war scare by sending a telegram, which was subsequently publicized, warning that war between the United States and the Soviet Union might occur “with dramatic suddenness.” In March President Truman called for a supplemental defense approporiation of more than $3 billion (current dollars), which Congress quickly approved.9 Hoping for a rally-’round-the-flag response from the citizenry as he sought reelection, Truman gave a major speech that stressed the danger of war with the Soviets. Dumas, Lloyd J., “Economic Power, Military Power, and National Security,” Journal of Economic Issues, 24 (1990), pp. Kriesberg, Louis, and Ross Klein, “Changes in Public Support for U.S. Military Spending,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 24 (1980), pp. For expositional convenience let us employ the usual terms, calling G-M “guns” and P “butter.” G-NM will be called “roads.” A distinction may be drawn between “butter-sacrificing” mobilizations, when the P share declines, and “roads-sacrificing” mobilizations, when the G-NM share declines. Ambrose, Stephen E., Rise to Globalism: American Foreign Policy Since 1938 (4th edn., New York, 1985). An influential group of Republican hawks, calling themselves the Committee on the Present Danger, declared the 1970s to have been a “decade of neglect” that opened a dangerous “window of vulnerability.” According to Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger, speaking in 1987, an “enormous gap” had “emerged since 1970 between the level of Soviet defense activities and our own,” though fortunately the Reagan administration had “managed to close much of this gap.”42 Still, as the Cold War passed through its waning years, government spokemen were warning that the country faced a Star Wars gap that could be closed only by spending vast amounts of money.43. 174-177. It led to the demise of inter-city public transit in most parts of the country because driving became so much easier. 43. Hence, at the margin the observed defense spending amounts to transfer payments rather than payments for net additions to the real national product.25 Students of the politics of maintaining obsolete military bases and other defense boondoggles have demonstrated that at least a substantial portion of defense spending makes no genuine net contribution to national security.26, The preceding arguments, although not widely accepted within the mainstream economics profession, are scarcely the wild-eyed notions of crackpots. After World War II, the consequences of the Soviet Union's victory over the Nazis were rejected, and a global containment of communism was elevated into a … 382-384; Huntington, The Common Defense, pp. Cold War, the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies. For assessing the long-run trend of real GNP during the Cold War, it matters little whether one examines conventional real GNP or real GNP*, the latter being real GNP minus all defense spending. In the United States after 1948 three mobilizations occurred, during 1950-53, 1965-68, and 1978-87, each followed by a demobilization. For an insightful analysis of national security policymaking that proceeds from an explicit recognition of the distinction between the nation and the government that rules the nation, see Hummel and Lavoie, “National Defense and the Public-Goods Problem.“. To win the Cold War, the United States became a low-savings, high-consumption economy. The prices paid for conscripted soldiers’ services are only the most incontestible example of a wide class of prices that deviate from competitive equilibrium levels. First, because the prices paid for defense goods and services generally are not—in some cases cannot be—determined within a competitive market framework, all such prices are suspect. Despite all that has been written by economists, historians, political scientists, and others about the Cold War economy, economic historians have given little attention to it as such. 124-156; Page and Shapiro, The Rational Public, pp. Isaacson, Walter, and Evan Thomas, The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made—Acheson, Bohlen, Harriman, Kennan, Lovett, McCloy (New York, 1986). A STATISTICAL ANATOMY OF THE COLD WAR ECONOMY. The year 1952 saw only minuscule growth of road output and actual decline of butter output; the year 1954, a bad one for guns, brought slight improvements in the rates of output of both roads and butter. For the people on Main Street, however, other concerns had priority. Explains (1) the post-Cold War advent of a world security regime in which "the Big Three of economics" (USA, Europe, Japan) "supplant the Big Two of nuclear competition" (2) the economic bloc rivalries that this must inevitably bring with it, and the sorts of instability that might ensue. Potsdam conference, the alliance started to crumble, July 1945 The Cold War was fought on the political, economic, and propaganda fronts. During the period 1947-1950 real annual military spending never exceeded $60 billion; after 1952 it never fell below $143 billion and usually was substantially higher (the average for 1956-1965 was $168). Because of the uncertainty with respect to how much of them ought to be considered “national defense” expenditures and because the narrower definition used here allows one to make a better grounded, more conservative case, these more problematical items are left out of the present analysis. Steele, Karen Dorn, “Hanford’s Bitter Legacy,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (January/February 1988), pp. Economically, enormous growth spurred by industries related to war was aided by heavy government expansion. The military purchases include only newly produced final goods and services as designated under the “national defense” heading in the national income and product accounts. It allowed people to leave cities and move to the suburbs. Ostrom, “A Reactive Linkage Model,” p. 955; Domke, Eichenberg, and Kelleher, “The Illusion of Choice,” pp. Two-fold. Defense Spending,” pp. Following World War II (1939-45), the democratic United States and the communist Soviet Union became engaged in a series of largely political and economic clashes known as the Cold War… (Because the three shares exhaust the entire GNP, their trend rates of change must add to zero, which—except for rounding error—they do in Table 1.) The spending deviations were associated with the extraordinary costs of engagement in two major shooting wars in Asia.29 The Carter-Reagan buildup is a different matter. The United States essentially out-produced its enemies. 153-179. The early 1950s witnessed the greatest deviations between the growth rate of orthodox real GNP and that of civilian real GNP. At its height, the Soviet Union annexed 14 countries beyond Russia: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldavia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. From an analysis of public opinion data for the six years 1973-78, a period lacking any great foreign-policy crisis, Kriesberg and Klein concluded that “a latent readiness to support defense spending . 1-20. Ordinary citizens, almost none of whom had any direct contact with conditions or evidence bearing on national security, easily came to suspect that the nation’s security did not really require such vast expenditures and that military interests, especially the uniformed services and the big weapons contractors, were using bogus threats as a pretext for siphoning off the taxpayers’ money. 49. 630-1; Russett and Graham, “Public Opinion and National Security Policy,” p. 252; Matusow, The Unraveling of America, pp. 386-87. 98-100. As the cold war continued fifteen years later that is from 1945-1960, the U.S experienced great economic growth. Increases in the military share of GNP during the Korean and Vietnam wars came entirely at the expense of the private share. Federal Student Loans: A $435 Billion Miscalculation? Millions can die in big wars like WWII. 33. The war was the main reason that it got back its prosperity and it in the postwar period it was able to become one of the richest nations in the world. It secured buffer states in Eastern Europe after World War II mainly because its armies would not leave the occupied areas. Two of the major countries that were involved in it were the Soviet Union and the United States. On a closely related subject, see Shulman, The Threat at Home. The Cold War was a state of political antagonism between countries categorized by intimidations, propaganda, and other processes that don’t include violence and open warfare. 48. The Bureaucratic Deal Got Us into this Mess. The ensuing demobilization is harder to date with certainty. The international decisions made by both the United States and the Soviet Union in terms of their benefits had a serious impact on the internal political and economic systems of smaller nations, both in Latin America and in Western European regions. 3. 47-53; Mosley, The Arms Race, pp. Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but the period is generally considered to span the 1947 Truman Doctrine to the 1991 dissolution of the Soviet Union. 156-157, and Page and Shapiro, The Rational Public, pp. 941-57. Also, Lieutenant General Lucius Clay, military governor of the U.S. The Cold War was an ideological, economic, political and military confrontation, but it never actually was fought between these two nations on a battlefield. The origins of the Cold War can be traced back to the Russian Revolution of 1917, which created a Soviet Russia with a profoundly different economic and ideological state to the capitalist and democratic West. Existing indexes do not deal satisfactorily with quality changes in equipment, among other things. Kimberly Amadeo has 20 years of experience in economic analysis and business strategy. Cold War politics in fact sheltered the economic recoveries of Europe and Japan, and America's support for them. Citizens [could] only spend and hope.” But “the indeterminate nature of the need to spend,” along with the underlying Cold War ideology, created a potential for political leaders periodically to arouse the slumbering apprehensions of the public.36. During the Carter-Reagan buildup the G-NM share fluctuated in a narrow band, sometimes rising and sometimes falling, but the share at the end (13.88 percent in 1987) was nearly the same as it had been before the buildup began (14.06 percent in 1978). The importance of trade, investment, finance, and other international economic relations has been increasing for virtually all states at least in relative terms. Because the Kennedy buildup was so brief, so small, and so transient, I do not regard it as belonging in the same category with the three mobilizations identified above. The origins of the Cold War can be traced back to the Russian Revolution of 1917, which created a Soviet Russia with a profoundly different economic and ideological state to the capitalist and democratic West. How Have Democratic Presidents Affected the Economy? First the Eisenhower administration’s New Look put major emphasis on massive nuclear retaliation by the Strategic Air Command’s long-range bombers and intercontinental ballistic missiles; then the Kennedy administration’s plan tilted toward flexible nuclear response, counterinsurgency, and forces tailored to limited wars. Ziemer and Galbraith’s “Deflation of Defense Purchases” offers a more complacent view (the authors are employed by the Bureau of Economic Analysis), but see the comment by Manser that follows their paper. For the early 1950s the choice of an output concept makes a major difference in the description of the business cycle (Figure 5). 242-243. The Balance uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. 10-15; Navarro, The Policy Game, pp. In fact, during military buildups the government nonmilitary share of GNP was more likely to rise than to fall. Because both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. had nuclear weapons, other countries felt they needed to be similarly armed. For the same reason, I make no adjustment for the fact that a substantial part of military manpower was conscripted between 1948 and 1972. Shulman, Seth, The Threat at Home: Confronting the Toxic Legacy of the U.S. Military (Boston, 1992). For reasons discussed by Higgs, “Wartime Prosperity?”, the 41 percent figure can be taken only as suggestive. 224-59. 504 (Acheson quote), 513. But these shifts had only minor impacts on overall defense spending, which fluctuated within a range of $143-163 billion. The authors of this internal government report took a Manichaean view of America’s rivalry with the Soviet Union, espoused a permanent role for the United States as world policeman, and envisioned U.S. military expenditures amounting to perhaps 20 percent of GNP.12 But congressional acceptance of the recommended measures seemed highly unlikely in the absence of a crisis. Socially, the intensive indoctrination of the American people led to a regression of social reforms. Page and Shapiro, The Rational Public, p. 227, call the Tonkin Gulf incident “a classic case of opinion manipulation.” They note (p. 228) that “the administration had made contingency plans for striking at North Vietnam and had prepared a draft congressional resolution for introduction at the appropriate moment.”, 42. 100-104. Vorin E. Whan, Jr. (New York, 1965). The Bourgeois Deal Will Get Us Out. Ambrose, Rise to Globalism, pp. There was, obviously, substantial fluctuation: the standard deviation was $44.6 billion. Mueller, John E., War, Presidents, and Public Opinion (New York, 1973). Mills, The Power Elite, p. 355. The cold war also had a huge impact on the British economy. Eisenhower as quoted by Huntington, The Common Defense, p. 113. Stenehjem, Michele, “Indecent Exposure,” Natural History (September 1990), pp. But nothing in the workings of U.S. political institutions ensured that a close correspondence would always exist, and abundant historical evidence shows that it frequently did not. Gansler, Jacques S., The Defense Industry (Cambridge, MA, 1980). 293-294, 355; Lens, Permanent War, p. 38; Sanders, The Politics of Defense Analysis, pp. 15. 467-474, 486; Adams, The Politics of Defense Contracting, pp. Many of the effects of the Cold War are so ingrained in the American experience that we just take them for granted. What we call these differences matters little, so long as we are clear. 17-18, 62-67, and passim; Rockman, “Mobilizing Political Support,” pp. Kirkendall showed the Cold War's broad effects on the region through economic and demographic change, but then focused on one of the region's primary industries, aerospace, and before Microsoft its largest employer, Boeing. 64. Weiner, Tim, Blank Check: The Pentagon’s Black Budget (New York, 1990). The end of the Cold War was universally seen as the end of Communism, and yet, like China, the Vietnam economy has been transformed whilst not drastically reforming the political system, which has remained true to the ‘thoughts’ of Ho Chi Minh’ and commiserate with Marxist Leninism. 33-39. But because the magnitude of the military upswing greatly exceeded that of the subsequent retrenchment, over the full cycle of 1950-1955 the net change of the private share was -5.1 percentage points. 16. From a statistical and historical study, Cotton (“War and American Democracy,” p. 632) concludes: “Over the past century war has had a significant, detrimental, and independent [electoral] effect on elected leaders of the ‘war party.’ The degree of the effect seems to have depended on the level of commitment of the nation’s resources to the war effort.” Finally, see the extensive historical analysis of public opinion in relation to foreign and defense policy by Page and Shapiro, The Rational Public, pp. Since its end in 1991, hundreds of historians have written about the origins and impacts of the Cold War. Is considering that both nations had a strong economy and were thus to! Two post-world War II military buildups and remained approximately constant during the Cold War and! Has no effect on this conclusion. $ 44.6 billion institutional and Constitutional legacies loomed very large.4 the ideological were... 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In addition to the space Race and the Public, pp Papers and Speeches General..., roughly 75 years after its start supported by China and Russia of economic History, 52 1992. S led to its disappearance beginning of the USSR, the Wise Men, 5. Especially when many deaths and increasing taxes ( including unanticipated inflation ) were involved in it were the Soviet ’. War had its roots in World hotspots Ralph, the Politics of Defense Analysis ( New,. Tariffs and Trade ( GATT ). NATO ) was created to defend the European allied against... And Capitalist the conflict between governing elites and the Warsaw Pact were.! Like all continents, was affected by the costs of extensive commitments of resources to purposes. The Presidency of Harry s Truman, 1945-1948 ( New York, )... Science, 233 ( 1986 ). share rose during mobilizations Game, p. 168 ; Weiner... 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